Optimizing Carbohydrate Intake

When you eat can be just as important as what you eat. The timing of carbohydrate intake can play a key role in keeping the body ready when it's time for the next workout.


The generally accepted dietary suggestion of eating frequent small meals as opposed to eating infrequent large meals acts to regulate and minimize the amount of available circulating glucose over the 80 calorie level.

In reality, since adipose tissue takes up glucose most rapidly, in the presence of overabundant insulin-carried glucose, a simultaneous uptake of glucose will likely occur in all tissues resulting in adipose tissue's immediate competition with liver and muscular needs even when liver and muscle glycogen stores are significantly depleted.

It is when carbohydrates are ingested in large quantities and/or in the form of simple sugars that conditions are favorable for the over-release of insulin and subsequent undesirable increased adipose tissue insulin-carried glucose uptake.

An ideal diet with respect to carbohydrate intake, therefore, would call for a consistent and controlled frequent intake of carbohydrates in such amounts and with proper timing as to steadily maintain the circulating glucose slightly above the 80 calorie circulatory capacity. This, in turn, stimulates the pancreas to release only the amount of insulin appropriate to provide for daily energy needs and to gradually replete any and all glucose energy stores (muscle and liver glycogen), with an insufficient amount remaining for significant adipose tissue storage.

This well-timed, appropriately measured quantity of dietary carbohydrate ingestion would cause an extremely moderate and steady release of insulin.

A closely guarded maintenance of blood sugar levels is generally accepted as being the foundation of healthy eating. But what other dietary considerations can be practiced with the same goal relative to carbohydrate ingestion?

#1-When ingesting a significant amount of simple sugar (100+ calories), by also ingesting either a moderate amount of complex carbohydrates, or even some protein, these combined nutrients will digest into a chyme thereby compromising the absorption rate of the otherwise unaccompanied simple sugar for its more gradual uptake into the bloodstream. This compromised rate of absorption in turn desirably prevents the exaggerated over-release of insulin. In simpler terms, if you are going to eat simple sugars, eat them along with complex carbs and/or protein.

#2-Knowing the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates is obviously essential to regulating bloodsugar. A rating system known as the "Glycemic Index" scores various foods relative to their unaccompanied absorption rate into the bloodstream on a scale of 0 to 100. The higher the score, the faster its absorption rate. The primary limit to this system is that not all known foods are represented.

#3-Providing carbohydrates to the body when it needs them and learning how much the body needs relative to the hour of day and activity performed. These considerations will ideally minimize adipose tissue glucose uptake (fat storage).

Carbohydrates and Time-of-Day

It is important to realize that when waking, the liver has been releasing glucose energy throughout the night and is likely low on stored glycogen. Likewise, blood glucose levels will likely be low. This should tell you that anywhere from 300-500 calories of ingested simple and complex carbs at breakfast will likely be put to good use.

Therefore, breakfast is the meal of the day that could arguably consist of the most carbohydrates with the intention of discouraging fat accumulation. As the day wears on, in the absence of exercise consideration, carbohydrate consumption should ideally taper off up to bedtime. Then, upon waking, initiating this entire carbohydrate intake cycle can occur again.

Carbohydrates and Activity

Generally speaking, glucose reserves for aerobic activity come more so from the liver than from the muscle tissues, especially once "steady state" has been achieved. Complex carbohydrate ingestion should be relatively substantial 2-3 hours prior to the performance of aerobic activity to insure all glycogen stores are full upon initiating the exercise.

It has been recommended to ingest complex carbohydrates during aerobic activity that is prolonged (60+ minutes). While this practice is still beneficial, it has since been determined that proteins are the preferred fuel of choice during prolonged aerobic activity, since the amino acid deamination process requires more time and the resulting insulin release is more gradual and sustained.

This amounts to the fact that the bloodsugar level remains intact for longer periods when ingesting proteins and/or complex carbohydrates during prolonged aerobic activity. After a typical aerobic exercise session (20-60 minutes), there is not as great a need to replace carbohydrates, as the chief energy source for the performance of aerobic activity is fatty acids.

In contrast to almost every other aspect of aerobic activity, glucose stores used for anaerobic, or resistance activity, are substantial. These reserves are chiefly exhausted from the working muscles. For this reason, as long as the muscle glycogen stores are repleted through recovery from recent strenuous activity, there is little need to make a conscious effort to ingest a significant measure of complex carbohydrates prior to a resistance training session. In fact, it should be noted that any food undergoing the process of digestion upon the initiation of resistance training, or any strenuous activity, may rob the muscles of energy and oxygen rich blood.

Blood is needed in and around the intestinal region during digestion, and therefore will not entirely be made available to the working muscles to provide the much needed oxygen. If a significant amount of food is present in digestion, nausea and dizziness will bring a quick end to any strenuous exercise session.

Also, contrary to aerobic exercise, the post-resistance workout meal should be rich in complex carbohydrates in an effort to replace as quickly as possible depleted muscle energy stores. This will spare intercellular proteins, and quicken the desirable metabolic shift to anabolism.

Meals following aerobic exercise sessions require only moderate carbohydrate and total caloric intake since the chief aerobic energy source was fatty acids.


Sports Nutrition Manual. NFPT. 2006


These resources are for the purpose of personal trainer growth and development through Continuing Education which advances the knowledge of fitness professionals. This article is written for NFPT Certified Personal Trainers to receive Continuing Education Credit (CEC). Please contact NFPT at 800.729.6378 or [email protected] with questions or for more information.
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